Climate change is one of the most discussed current topics and the idea that anthropogenic or artificial greenhouse gases (GHG) are among the main causes of this phenomenon is now universally established.
In addition to its devastating effect on the environment, climate change can also cause an increase in migratory flows, poverty and conflicts, in the face of territories that are becoming less and less habitable.
We are scientists and engineers, let the others talk, our task is to resolve the problems.
To stop climate change and resolve and reverse the carbon dioxide trend and the other problems related to them, we need to decarbonize the economy.
- Transportation (people and goods) is now the main producer of combustion outputs;
- Energy production needs to become pollution free while doubling the output in the next decade, worldwide.
Transportation (ground, sea, air):
Zero emission requires portable energy. Battery energy density must come close to that of fuels to make compromise free transportation a reality
Transportation (ground, sea, air):
not considering atomic energy, generates exausts except renewables.
Renewables are fairly abundant but unpredicatble and intermittent (with ony one exception).
To extend the use of renewables large electric energy storage is necessary.
Two big problems, one keyword: high energy density, high capacity batteries
To decarbonize the EU economy, up to 4000 GWh storage capacity will be needed by 2050 for renewables and transport.
The world 2025 capacity in construction is 1265GWh, currently less than 3 in the EU, 90 in Far East
How to use renewables efficiently? Taming the unpredictable
Renewables to grow by factor of six
What is the status of electric storage systems? A long history of inadequacy is coming to an end.
Typically, technology and market developments are non linear; when the treshold of desire is reached, the market expands all of a sudden.
Are we at the treshold with storage systems? Consider the electric car.
Electric cars are simple, silent realiable. Offer great performance and are super durable. However, to consider switching to an electric car, the typical user would need:
- At least 500 km range
- A quick and easy recharge (max 10 minutes)
- A competitive price
To get 500 km range with a well-designed car 100-120 kWh are needed
- With lead acid, that would have meant 3 tons. With latest generation batteries, 350-400 kg, possible!
- 10 min recharge is technologically possible now.. Working towards 1 minute!
- Cost: according to automotive industry sources, cost equivalence beween IC and electric car needs a battery cost at or below 60 E/kWh
- Right now battery cost is below 100E/kWh and dropping
We are at the treshold for land transport!
At the treshold of a deeper transformation? The development of transport drones becomes possible.
Are there enough resources to change the world?
All components in the batteries are recycled, never wasted nor consumed.
Considering just the state of the art, to make 1TWh of batteries we need approx:
We are definitely at the onset of a world changing revolution:
These numbers are not great (the metals churned by the car industry are an order of magnitude higher)
Estimated world reserves of Lithium are over 13 M tons
World speed record with Bertone ZER (309 km/h)
DD motors for light transit (Phase design, Siemens brand)
Hybrid and full electric systems for military midget submarines (tens of units)
Hybrid systems for ZF Marine (sailboats) over 100 units sold
Chinese State buys out Phase China to install large scale EV motor production
Phase recognizes the strategic importance of Li-Ion cell manufacturing and integration for the European industry and starts a specific R&D development investment with aim of manufacturing initially batteries and eventually cells and systems.
From early 2017, Phase starts Research programs with University of Genoa on cell chemistry and regeneration.
Phase starts development of own battery systems based on integration of 1865 battery cells
Product development: high power battery chargers for Moto-E and Formula-E competition, with 60 kWh storage inside (LG cells, Phase battery integration)
Phase-China cooperation to develop 15,000 rpm EV transmission for next generation BJEV vehicle
Phase starts development of high power density SiC MCUs with STuelectronics devices together with Nottingham University
5 patents applied on cell regeneration intrinsic safety, High density cooling, , bms technology, AC interface.
Bidirectional power battery to network interface for the main partner in Moto-E championship.
Creation of first and only advanced Lithium cell and battery manufacturing facility in Italy or UK
Targeted market: electric mobility for sea, land and air transport, energy storage
Initial market: large storage systems for hybrid ships (10-20 MWh/system)
Cell manufacturing facility (pouch type) + battery integration facility (system control, safety certified BMS and integration)
Initial production capacity 100 MWh/year
Focus technology: NCM 8-1-1 Lithium ion with liquid cooling, improved safety (intrinsic quenching) and regeneration capacity (Phase pat. pend.) target 260 Wh/kg, 1000 cycles+, C4 capable
Next generation in 4-5 years: all solid state battery, intrinsically safe, >400 Wh/kg
Vehicle high speed charging: 500 kW power level, 900 V Dc: this will require dircet medium voltage A to low voltage DC conversion.
High efficiency, isolated and bidirectional Ac-Dc and Dc-Dc converters will need high frequency, low loss device – this means SiC and GaN.
A step increase in PWM frequency will dictate new low inductance packaging, with filtering inside
The power distribution revoltion will expand the power electronics market by orders of magnitude, this means that: